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Control of wood burning in oven

Reserves of heating capacity of (the shown below) the heating system is (also) in the control of combustion: in control of extracting thermal energy through wood-fired oven.

In these terms, the process of stove control is very similar to control of a nuclear reactor by neutrons in nuclear power plants. This is not surprising: in the essence - in both cases - difficult to manage, on the positive feedbacks, process of heat energy transfer to the heat carrier, which strives to go beyond the safety of technical parameters. For simplicity, we present an analogue - a steam boiler.
Image from Wikipedia - air furnace heating.

A damper in a stove chimney flue (1) controls air supply by being set open (2) or closed (3). (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood-burning_stove)
Wikipedia's wisdom: "controls air supply by being set open (2) or closed (3)" - controls the air flow through the valve position (open/closed). If only the control of the combustion process of complex biological product - wood - was limited by this! Different oxygen supply (air) during combustion results in a different amounts of formation of different substances in different physical conditions.

Control of firewood burning in the oven: Firewood combustion reaction in the furnace; free oxygen in the air; release of heat through the radiator; exhaust furnace gas ('smoke').
Where
R - reaction of burning wood in the stove - wood oxidation reaction with atmospheric oxygen.
1 - stove fuel - in this case firewood.
2 - air - a significant amount of free oxygen in the air only.
3 - thermal energy - generated heat supplied to the external radiator (split system, you know :-).
4 - exhaust furnace gas ("smoke")

Vexing example, the effects of the regulation:
Nonintensive combustion leads to the deposition of "tar", which is actually a furnace carbon black, diluted with water (from the smoke). Too little air flow through the oven in the furnace.
Remember!
Nitrogen gas is about 78 volume% of air, does not react chemically (non-oxidized, in particular) in the furnace. Nitrogen transits only, heats only.

Flow of furnace gas slightly heats (in the stove), furnace gas slightly cools down unnecessarily in the chimney. And from the furnace gas falls as liquid water and liquid carbon black (water "solution").


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